The 4 Different Types of Connectives Used in Good Public Speaking

Good public speaking skills involve more than presenting informative or persuasive material to an audience in an engaging, uplifting manner. It requires the use of connectives to keep your presentation or speech organized as well as unified. Better than a verbal tic, such as ‘um’ or ‘ah,’ by employing good connectives in your speech, you will also make it easier for your listeners to both follow what you are saying and remember more of what you are saying.

The 4 types of connectives include:

1. Signposts

Without a doubt, one of the most popular forms of connectives are signposts. The signpost refers to very brief statements that tell your audience where you are in your speech. They can be numbers – the 1st idea, the 2nd idea, etc.; they can be questions which offer good audience interaction; and, they can be phrases that underscore important points in your message.

Example: The most important thing I want you to gain from my presentation is that breathing with the support of your diaphragm will not only end vocal abuse but it will also mean a more confident, more mature-sounding speaking voice.

In the above statement, I have reiterated what I want my audience to remember but I have also let them know that I have come to the end of my development. While those words are not my concluding statement, they have paved the way for my conclusion.

2. Transitions

Transitions are words or phrases that mark the end of one thought or idea and move the speaker into another thought or idea by including material from the previous statement into the new one.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, allow me to explain how the situation can be reversed.

In the above sentence, the words in bold mark the transition, reinforcing my previous statements and paving the way for the new statement.

3. Internal Previews

Similar to the transition and often including a transition, the internal preview is found in the development of the speech or presentation and includes what is coming up in greater detail than the transition. The preview is in bold.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, the remedy is quite simple. Learn to breathe with the support of your diaphragm and allow your chests to power your voice.

Including the original transition, the internal preview consists of the statement which follows in bold.

4. Internal Summaries

Found also in the development of the speech or presentation, the internal summary is the opposite of the internal preview because it lists ever so briefly what has already been stated. These summaries are important because they reinforce what has already been said, making it easier for your audience to follow your message.

Example: In essence, by learning to breathe properly, finding the optimum pitch of your speaking voice, and allowing your chest to do the work, you will eliminate vocal abuse forever.

The above sentence summarizes succinctly what may have been discussed for the last 10, 20 or even 40 minutes of your delivery.

Using any and all of the above connectives in your delivery are very effective means of keeping your audience’s attention as well as keeping your talk organized. Use them and your listeners will remember more of what you have said.

Necklace Buying Guide

Are you looking for some easy tips to help you or your loved ones in buying the perfect necklace? Just like with anything that you can buy, necklaces come in a variety of designs and types. You can choose, for instance, pear strands, diamond necklaces, pendant necklaces or gemstones. As a matter of fact, you can go for the right necklace based on your style. Read on to know more.

Pendant Necklaces

As far as the popularity goes, pendant necklaces are on the list of most popular products in this category. Often, they are sold without the chain. However, at some stores, you can find pendants that come with the chain. As far as buying pendants is concerned, you can find them in different styles, shapes or colors. For instance, you can buy diamond solitaires, whimsical motifs, cross and so on. If you don’t know the difference between a necklace and a pendant, know that the pendants allow you to remove the chain, but necklaces don’t. So, make sure you know the difference prior to buying the right product.

Pearl Strands

Pearl strands are on the list of favorite necklaces for some people. They are available in different colors, lengths, sizes, shapes and prices. Therefore, you can choose from a whole host of products based on your style and taste.

A pearl one can be a choker-style of 16-inch or an opera style of 32-inch. You can put these on for a stylized look. They can be wrapped or layered around the neck. It’s important to keep in mind that pearls can be baroque or round. Aside from this, they can be oblong or textured shape as well. And the great news is that you can find them in different colors like grey, pink or white, just to name a few. So, you are not bound to buy a specific one.

Necklaces

You can choose from a variety of designs, styles and shapes when buying one. For instance, you can buy a gemstone, diamond, or a simple chain.

Tips for Buying a Necklace as a Gift

If you are interested in purchasing a necklace as a gift, you may find the following tips immensely helpful. Read on.

Check out the jewelry box owned by the person that you are going to buy the gift for. If they have a strand of pearls, know that they may not be interested in another strand. As a matter of fact, they are timeless gifts that don’t go out of style.

Fashion style

Another that you need to consider is the fashion style of theirs. For instance, if they like colors, we suggest that you opt for a good statement gemstone necklace. On the other hand, if they like classic and simple look, you may want to check out a heart pendant or timeless diamond.

So, if you have been looking to buy a quality necklace for your friend or loved one as a gift, we suggest that you follow these tips and you will have an easy time buying the right one.

How Organizational Structures Affect Projects and Project Management

It is true that the structure of an organization can have a major impact on project management.

Think about your own experience. Is it difficult to get a traction on your projects? Are there numerous layers of authority that you have to navigate to get approvals for basic tasks? Does your budget get cut because of competition for limited funding? Do your projects lose out in favor of day-to-day routine operations? And you thought it was something you were doing, or failing to do! Well it may have been, but it's more likely that you are feeling the effects of the organizational structure within which you work. Understanding your working environment better will help you to rise above organizational issues and smooth the way to successful project management.

By looking at three different organizational structures – functional, matrix and projectised – we will discover how each distinct organizational style affects project management.

  1. Functional Organizational Structure . These firms are organized into functional divisions based on primary functions such as engineering, human resources, finance, IT, planning and policy. Each different functional division operates independently and isolated groups of workers in a division report to a functional manager. The functional manager generally both allocates and monitors the work and carries out tasks such as performance evaluation and setting payment levels. In this model project managers have very limited authority. Functional organizations are set up for ongoing operations rather than projects and so this organizational structure is often found in firms which primary purpose is to produce standardized goods and services.
  2. Matrix Organizational Structure. In a matrix organization control is shared. The project manager shares responsibility for the project with a number of individual functional managers. Shared responsibilities can include assigning priorities and tasks to individual team members. But functional managers still make the final decisions on who will work on projects and are still responsible for administration. Project managers take charge of allocating and organizing the work for the designated project team. In this type of structure there is a balance between ongoing operations and projects, so it is a common structure for organizations that have these dual roles. For instance, local body organizations that are responsible for both maintaining existing infrastructure (ongoing operations) and commissioning the construction of new infrastructure (projects) often have matrix structures.
  3. Projected Organizational Structure. In a projectised organization the project manager has full authority over the project. This includes the authority to set priorities, apply resources, and to direct the work of the project team. All members of the team report directly to the project manager and everyone is assigned to a project. After completion of the project, resources will be re-assigned to another project. This type of structure is common in firms that work on size-able, long-term projects, such as in the construction industry.

Take a moment to reflect on which type of organizational structure you work in before we move on to discuss how these organizational structures affect projects. Then see if you recognize any of the issues raised.

So what are the implications for project management?

In a functional organization, projects that exist within a single functional division generate no particular organizational issues, but projects that cut across functional divisions can be challenging to manage. Why? Because the project manager has no direct functional authority and must obtain continuous cooperation and support from functional managers of other divisions in order to meet project objectives. This can get complicated.

Because the matrix structure gives authority to both project managers and functional managers the income is to provide a more seamless division of labor and extremely to build a stronger team culture. However, the potential for conflict between functional managers and project managers still exists because there is still resource conflict. Everyone who is on a project team has two bosses – their functional manager as well as their project manager.

In a projectised organization authority is centralized. Because projects are removed from functional divisions the lines of communication are shortened. Both these factors enhance the ability to make swift decisions. Project teams develop a strong sense of identity which in turn creates a high level of commitment from team members. Due to their involvement in consecutive projects of a similar nature projectised organizations can develop and maintain a long-term body of experience and skills in specialized areas.

It is clear that projectised organizations make it easier to run projects because the entire structure is set up for that purpose. But if you are managing a project within other organizational structures, then recognizing and understanding the impacts will raise your awareness of the potential project management pitfalls, so that you can be proactive about resolving them. Communication, conflict resolution and team building will be key to your success.

Mobile Auto Detailing Services

If you take pride in your luxury vehicle, you more than likely take meticulous care of what is beneath the hood, and around your rims, but often times the cleanliness and exterior suffers which is obviously the most viewed and most susceptible part of the vehicle. Mobile auto detailing will take the dirt and grime and edge off you car so it looks as clean and sharp as the very first day it was purchased. Depending on what kind of beating your vehicle has taken, there are equally as many options.

It will always begin with a hand wash and hand dry, making meticulously sure there is nothing left on the car before the waxing begins. The hand wax is applied carefully to coat the car completely to keep bugs, tar, and water off, and removed with the same attention to every detail. The wheels are polished so that not only the rim shines, but the tire as well, sparklingly black. Again, attention to detail is key, and you should expect the wheel wells to be properly dressed as well as the tires and doing so is a certain sign of care and professionalism. The door jambs will be waxed and detailed along with the rest and nothing is more attractive than seeing each chrome nut and bolt shine.

Interior detailing is as important as whatever work is done on the exterior and for this reason going for the full interior job is just as significant as getting the body waxed and polished properly. Brushes, fluids, and air guns should be used if they are a high end operation because of course you get what you pay for in these cases. After the cleaning it is went over again with a sealant to prevent any upcoming spills or damage that would compromise your very freshly clean new vehicle. A thorough shampooing can be expected, starting with the mats and carpets, and the seats as well, which more than likely needs the care more, even though they are frequently neglected when it comes to detailing options. Finally everything will be scotch guarded and one is even able to pick if they want a nice scent to be left to linger in their car when you get it back cleaner than the day it was first bought.

It cannot be stressed enough how important a clean vehicle is inside and out. If you are a professional, it is obvious a dirty car is unbecoming, but few look ahead to the possibility of having to give your boss a ride and explaining a trashed interior space, which in such a case would end up being even more of a problem than dirt on the hood in the first place. For whatever reason, it should be done, and done on a regular basis as well.